Linguagens de programação hoje no mundo (janeiro/2016): as mais empregadas

TIOBE Index for January 2016

January Headline: Java is TIOBE’s Programming Language of 2015!

Java has won the TIOBE Index programming language award of the year. This is because Java has the largest increase in popularity in one year time (+5.94%). Java leaves runner ups Visual Basic.NET (+1.51%) and Python (+1.24%) far behind. At first sight, it might seem surprising that an old language like Java wins this award. Especially if you take into consideration that Java won the same award exactly 10 years ago. On second thought, Java is currently number one in the enterprise back-end market and number one in the still growing mobile application development market (Android). Moreover, Java has become a language that integrates modern language features such as lambda expressions and streams. The future looks bright for Java.

Java’s rise goes hand in hand with Objective-C’s decline (-5.88%). Apple’s announcement to replace Objective-C by Swift some time ago was the main cause of this fall. It was expected that Swift would gain as much popularity as Objective-C left behind, but that doesn’t appear to be the case. This is also observed in practice: TIOBE’s customers are not eagerly migrating to Swift yet. Apart from Objective-C, PHP (-1.08%) and Oracle’s PL/SQL (-1.00%) also lost ground in 2015. Other interesting changes are: Groovy (from #82 to #17), Erlang (from #89 to #35), Haskell (from #96 to #39) and Rust (from #126 to #47), whereas Go, Hack and Clojure are about to enter the top 50.

So what is the outlook for 2016? I expect that Java, PHP (with the new 7 release), JavaScript and Swift will be the top 10 winners for 2016. Scala might gain a permanent top 20 position, whereas Rust, Clojure, Julia and TypeScript will also move up considerably in the chart.

The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the number of skilled engineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors. Popular search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube and Baidu are used to calculate the ratings. It is important to note that the TIOBE index is not about the best programming language or the language in which most lines of code have been written.

The index can be used to check whether your programming skills are still up to date or to make a strategic decision about what programming language should be adopted when starting to build a new software system. The definition of the TIOBE index can be found here.

Jan 2016 Jan 2015 Change Programming Language Ratings Change
1 2 change    


2 1 change C 16.036% -0.67%
3 4 change C++ 6.914% +0.21%
4 5 change C# 4.707% -0.34%
5 8 change Python 3.854% +1.24%
6 6 PHP 2.706% -1.08%
7 16 change Visual Basic .NET 2.582% +1.51%
8 7 change JavaScript 2.565% -0.71%
9 14 change Assembly language 2.095% +0.92%
10 15 change Ruby 2.047% +0.92%
11 9 change Perl 1.841% -0.42%
12 20 change Delphi/Object Pascal 1.786% +0.95%
13 17 change Visual Basic 1.684% +0.61%
14 25 change Swift 1.363% +0.62%
15 11 change MATLAB 1.228% -0.16%
16 30 change Pascal 1.194% +0.52%
17 82 change Groovy 1.182% +1.07%
18 3 change Objective-C 1.074% -5.88%
19 18 change R 1.054% +0.01%
20 10 change PL/SQL 1.016% -1.00%


, Dec 31, 2004● C: 20.709%


Elaborar um algoritmo que leia o raio de uma esfera e calcule a área e o volume.

Abaixo estão os fontes desse algoritimo em C, Java, Python e Ruby.


Em C:



int main(int argc, char **argv[]){

float pi=3.141592, raio;

printf(“digite o valor do raio: “);



printf(“a area da esfera e: %.2f\n”,((4*pi)*(raio*raio)));

printf(“o volume da esfera e: %.2f\n”,(((4/3)*pi)*(raio*raio*raio)));

return 0;



Em Java:


import* ;

class Exercicio6 {

public static void main(String args[])


Console console = System.console();


String raio = null;

double pi = 3.141592, tamanho_raio;


raio = console.readLine(“digite o valor do raio: “);


tamanho_raio = Float.parseFloat(raio);


System.out.println(“a area da esfera e: ” + (4*pi)*(tamanho_raio*tamanho_raio));

System.out.println(“o volume da esfera e: ” + (4/3*pi)*(tamanho_raio*tamanho_raio*tamanho_raio));




Em Python:

#!/usr/bin/env python

pi = 3.141592


def main():

raio = input(“digite o valor do raio: “)

print “a area da esfera e: %.2f” % ((4*pi)*(raio**2))

print “o volume da esfera e: %.2f” % (((4/3)*pi)*(raio**3))


if __name__ == “__main__”:



Em Ruby:


pi = 3.141592

puts “digite o valor do raio: ”


raio = gets.chomp

puts “a area da esfera e: %.2f” % ((4*pi)*(raio.to_f**2))

puts “o volume da esfera e: %.2f” % ((4/3*pi)*(raio.to_f**3))


Visual Basic .NET
Assembly language

Other programming languages

The complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. This overview is published unofficially, because it could be the case that we missed a language. If you have the impression there is a programming language lacking, please notify us at Please also check the overview of all programming languages that we monitor.

Position Programming Language Ratings
21 D 1.015%
22 SAS 0.968%
23 COBOL 0.873%
24 Fortran 0.853%
25 ABAP 0.808%
26 Dart 0.771%
27 Lisp 0.698%
28 Ada 0.661%
29 Scratch 0.567%
30 Scala 0.554%
31 Lua 0.517%
32 Prolog 0.491%
33 Transact-SQL 0.444%
34 Logo 0.381%
35 Erlang 0.352%
36 RPG (OS/400) 0.346%
37 LabVIEW 0.295%
38 F# 0.295%
39 Haskell 0.288%
40 Ladder Logic 0.235%
41 Apex 0.216%
42 Scheme 0.213%
43 (Visual) FoxPro 0.202%
44 VBScript 0.199%
45 Awk 0.194%
46 ML 0.189%
47 Rust 0.187%
48 Bash 0.185%
49 Alice 0.185%
50 ActionScript 0.174%

The Next 50 Programming Languages

The following list of languages denotes #51 to #100. Since the differences are relatively small, the programming languages are only listed (in alphabetical order).

  • ABC, APL, AutoLISP, BBC BASIC, bc, Bourne shell, C shell, CFML, CL (OS/400), Clojure, Common Lisp, cT, Elixir, Emacs Lisp, EXEC, Forth, Go, Hack, Icon, IDL, Inform, INTERCAL, Io, J, J#, Julia, Korn shell, Mathematica, Mercury, Modula-2, MQL4, MS-DOS batch, NATURAL, NXT-G, OCaml, OpenCL, OpenEdge ABL, Oz, PL/I, PowerShell, Programming Without Coding Technology, Pure Data, Q, Smalltalk, Standard ML, Stata, Tcl, thinBasic, Verilog, VHDL

This Month’s Changes in the Index

This month the following changes have been made to the definition of the index:

  • There are lots of mails that still need to be processed. As soon as there is more time available your mail will be answered. Please be patient.

Very Long Term History

To see the bigger picture, please find the positions of the top 10 programming languages of many years back. Please note that these are average positions for a period of 12 months.

Programming Language 2016 2011 2006 2001 1996 1991 1986
Java 1 1 2 3 30
C 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
C++ 3 3 3 2 2 2 8
C# 4 5 6 10
Python 5 6 7 25 13
PHP 6 4 4 20
JavaScript 7 10 9 8 32
Visual Basic .NET 8 192
Objective-C 9 8 42
Perl 10 7 5 4 3 17
Ada 26 22 16 17 4 9 3
Lisp 28 14 13 19 6 3 2

Programming Language Hall of Fame

The hall of fame listing all “Programming Language of the Year” award winners is shown below. The award is given to the programming language that has the highest rise in ratings in a year.

Year Winner
2015 medal Java
2014 medal JavaScript
2013 medal Transact-SQL
2012 medal Objective-C
2011 medal Objective-C
2010 medal Python
2009 medal Go
2008 medal C
2007 medal Python
2006 medal Ruby
2005 medal Java
2004 medal PHP
2003 medal C++

Bugs & Change Requests

This is the top 5 of most requested changes and bugs. If you have any suggestions how to improve the index don’t hesitate to send an e-mail to

  1. Apart from “<language> programming”, also other queries such as “programming with <language>”, “<language> development” and “<language> coding” should be tried out.
  2. Add queries for other natural languages (apart from English). The idea is to start with the Chinese search engine Baidu. This has been implemented partially and will be completed the next few months.
  3. Add a list of all search term requests that have been rejected. This is to minimize the number of recurring mails about Rails, JQuery, JSP, etc.
  4. Start a TIOBE index for databases, software configuration management systems and application frameworks.
  5. Some search engines allow to query pages that have been added last year. The TIOBE index should only track those recently added pages.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  • Q: Am I allowed to show the TIOBE index in my weblog/presentation/publication?A: Yes, the only condition is to refer to its original source “”.
  • Q: How may I nominate a new language to be added to the TIOBE index?A: If a language meets the criteria of being listed (i.e. it is Turing complete and has an own Wikipedia entry that indicates that it concerns a programming language) and it is sufficiently popular (more than 5,000 hits for +”<language> programming” for Google), then please write an e-mail to
  • Q: I would like to have the complete data set of the TIOBE index. Is this possible?A: We spent a lot of effort to obtain all the data and keep the TIOBE index up to date. In order to compensate a bit for this, we ask a fee of 5,000 US$ for the complete data set. The data set runs from June 2001 till today. It started with 25 languages back in 2001, and now measures more than 150 languages once a month. The data are availabe in comma separated format. Please contact for more information.
  • Q: Why is the maximum taken to calculate the ranking for a grouping, why not the sum?A: Well, you can do it either way and both are wrong. If you take the sum, then you get the intersection twice. If you take the max, then you miss the difference. Which one to choose? Suppose somebody comes up with a new search term that is 10% of the original. If you take the max, nothing changes. If you take the sum then the ratings will rise 10%. So taking the sum will be an incentive for some to come up with all kinds of obscure terms for a language. That’s why we decided to take the max.The proper way to solve this is is of course to take the sum and subtract the intersection. This will give rise to an explosion of extra queries that must be performed. Suppose a language has a grouping of 15 terms, then you have to perform 32,768 queries (all combinations of intersections). So this seems not possible either… If somebody has a solution for this, please let us know.
  • Q: What happened to Java in April 2004? Did you change your methodology?A: No, we did not change our methodology at that time. Google changed its methodology. They performed a general sweep action to get rid of all kinds of web sites that had been pushed up. As a consequence, there was a huge drop for languages such as Java and C++. In order to minimize such fluctuations in the future, we added two more search engines (MSN and Yahoo) a few months after this incident.
  • Q: Why is YouTube used as a search engine for the TIOBE index?A: First of all, YouTube counts for less than 10% of all ratings, so it has hardly any influence on the index. YouTube has been added as an experiment. It qualified for the TIOBE index because of its high ranking on Alexa. YouTube is a young platform (so an indicator for popularity) and there are quite some lectures, presentations, programming tips and language introductions available on YouTube.


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